A corticosteroid hormone medicine is dexamethasone, which is pronounced dex-ah-meth-ah-zone. This term may seem complicated, but we'll break it down to explain what the drug is and how it works.
Let's start with the second word: When you hear the term "1hormone," you probably think of substances like testosterone and oestrogen. These two hormones are involved in the generation of gametes (sperm and eggs), sexual maturation, and other physiological changes, demonstrating the fact that hormones are present almost everywhere in the body.
The so-called long-distance chemical messengers are hormones. These messengers are produced by glands throughout the body (such as the pituitary and thyroid glands), travel through the circulatory system, and signal receptors to act.
Various hormones communicate different things. For instance, the hormone insulin controls blood sugar levels when it is released, enabling cells to take up energy.
In the absence of circulating insulin, cells will not receive the signal to control blood sugar levels, resulting in hyper- and hypoglycemia (excessive and inadequate blood sugar levels) (sugar in the blood).
We may now discuss the first word: dexamethasone is a corticosteroid, a kind of hormone. These hormones are produced by the adrenal glands, which are located in the kidneys.
The generation of these corticosteroid messengers by the adrenal glands mediates the stress response (notice how the adrenal gland sounds like adrenaline, another hormone we know is released in stressful situations).
Similar to how insulin controls blood sugar levels when the body is under stress, corticosteroids and other hormones are produced to manage our stress response.
When produced, these corticosteroids carry out a vast array of functions, including modulating behaviour, blood electrolyte levels, immunological response, and bodily inflammation.
A synthetic corticosteroid hormone is dexamethasone. Dexamethasone will enter the circulation after ingestion and carry out comparable regulatory functions to those of natural corticosteroids, such as lowering immune response and reducing oedema, inflammation, and allergic-like symptoms.
When is dexamethasone prescribed?
Contrary to popular belief, an overactive immune system might really be bad for you. Inflammation and immunological activity that are out of control may injure a person by destroying both healthy cells and foreign invaders. Dexamethasone inhibits these immunological reactions and aids in avoiding excessive harm by artificially raising corticosteroid levels.
Dexamethasone is used to treat inflammatory illnesses such as arthritis, immune system problems, allergic reactions, colitis, asthma, and even certain forms of cancer since these conditions all include dysregulation of immunological and inflammatory responses. It is readily accessible, reasonably priced, and sold under the brand names Decadron, Dexamethasone Intensol, Dexasone, Solurex, and Baycadron, among others.
Dexamethasone has been used in medicine for many years and has undergone extensive testing, making it a trusted, low-risk pharmaceutical.
Dexamethasone and COVID-19: the RECOVERY trial
One of the most hazardous characteristics of COVID-19 is its capacity to trigger an immunological response that is overactive in crucial organs like the lungs, resulting in tissue destruction.
When the immune system becomes overactive, its cells will indiscriminately kill the lung tissue as well as the virus inside it, making breathing more difficult and hastening the person's demise.
Healthcare professionals treating COVID-19 have recently become interested in dexamethasone because a 2020 UK randomized controlled clinical trial (dubbed the RECOVERY trial) with 2100 participants found that six milligrammes of dexamethasone per day decreased the risk of death in critically ill patients by 20%. Additionally, the experiment revealed that the medication had no impact on moderate COVID-19 instances.
This makes logical sense given that the primary cause of coronavirus mortality seems to be acute inflammation of important organs (such as the heart, lungs, brain, and others) brought on by the body's reaction to COVID-19. Such a decrease could not be helpful for those who are just moderately ill since their bodies are already controlling their immunological and inflammatory levels well.
Regardless, this finding is encouraging and raises awareness of dexamethasone as a possibly life-saving treatment for COVID-19 patients who are extremely sick.
Dexamethasone, if it continues to provide benefits, represents a breakthrough in coronavirus treatment regimens due to its accessibility, affordability, and effectiveness. The market for dexamethasone and its key producers in the USA and across the world will be examined in this article.
Top Dexamethasone Manufacturers in the USA and Globally.
In addition to information from mayoclinic.com and corporate websites, firms were obtained using a 2020 MarketWatch article on corticosteroid companies. Revenues received in other currencies were translated to US dollars using exchange rates as of 6/18/20.
Pfizer, a global leader in pharmaceutical and medical goods, is best known for its iconic brands Advil, Celebrex, Robitussin, and many more. Dexamethasone, dexamethasone sodium phosphate, and other versions of the drug are produced by their own contract manufacturing company, Pfizer CentreOne, for use by Pfizer's brands. Their main office is in New York, New York.
Novartis of Basel
A multinational biopharmaceutical business with products in 155 countries, over 80 patented medications, and more than 200 clinical programmes in its pipeline is called Novartis of Basel, Switzerland.
Their affiliate Sandoz produces 1000 compounds for several therapeutic fields, including multiple versions of dexamethasone as eye drops, ointments, pills, and injectables. Sandoz also produces generic pharmaceuticals and biosimilars.
Merck & Co
One of the biggest pharmaceutical firms in the world, Merck & Co. produces vaccines, several brand-name and generic drugs, and a range of other medical products. They continued to produce biosimilar medicines in oral, IV, and topical formulations after starting to produce dexamethasone in 1958 under the trademark Decadron. Their main office is located in Kenilworth, New Jersey.
With 73 production facilities in 32 nations, 2Sanofi Pharmaceuticals is a market leader in the healthcare industry. Its three main business groups are speciality care, vaccines, and generic medications.
Dexamethasone acetate, dexamethasone, and associated compounds are among the 120+ APIs included in their manufacturing division's API Solutions catalogue.
Along with dexamethasone, Sanofi has been producing corticosteroids and hormones for more than 60 years. Their headquarters are in Paris, France.
With its corporate headquarters in Deerfield, Illinois, Baxter International is an American healthcare organization that specializes in haemophilia, renal illnesses, immunological disorders, and several other medical issues.
Baxter's BioPharma Solutions division focuses on both formulation issues and supply management and marketing.
Baxter has 50 production locations across six continents. All medication classes, including small molecules, biologics, vaccines, cytotoxics, antibodies, and many more, are areas in which they are well known.
With its headquarters in Ahmedabad, India, Zydus Cadila is a well-known pharmaceutical company and supplier of APIs, animal healthcare products, wellness solutions, and other healthcare services.
Their 30 manufacturing facilities, which are dispersed over three continents, can produce complicated pharmaceuticals, vaccines, biosimilars, formulations, APIs, and more. Dexamethasone is a widely used medication, and Zydus Cadila is a top producer of the medicine in both liquid and tablet form. The company has an 83% market share for the medication.
A generics and speciality branded pharmaceutical firm called 3Endo International is made up of the following companies: Endo Pharmaceuticals (branded medications), Par Pharmaceuticals (generic and over-the-counter drugs), and Paladin Labs (pharmaceutical products for Canadian markets).
Endo has manufacturing facilities in the US and India that can provide a variety of dosage forms, including tablets, capsules, liquids, suspensions, creams, and more. The location of their worldwide headquarters is in Dublin, Ireland.
Aspen Pharmacare Holdings is a global pharmaceutical firm that can produce injectables, oral dosages, liquids, sterile, biologicals, APIs, and more. It has 70 established commercial operations throughout 55 countries.
Aspen has the legal authority to sell dexamethasone tablets and injectables in many countries and has enough stock to fulfil growing demand. Their main office is in Durban, South Africa.
A global pharmaceutical producer and developer of branded and non-branded generic medications, Hikma Pharmaceuticals of London, UK, offers 690+ items globally.
A number of IV, pill, and liquid dexamethasone medicines are available from Hikma, a leading generic prescription pharmaceutical distributor in the US, along with a variety of other generic medications.
The US, South Africa, and India are Cipla Limited's three main export markets. The company is situated in Mumbai and produces over 1500 medicinal items in more than 50 different dosage forms. They produce speciality, consumer health, generic and branded generics, and they provide 19% of domestic Indian pharmaceutical sales. Their dexamethasone brands, which they sell globally, include Dexacip, Ciplox-D, Dexamon, Gentacip-D, Oflox-D, and others.
Worldwide biotechnology and pharmaceutical producer Wockhardt Limited also runs specialized hospitals. Wockhardt is one of the top five healthcare firms in India and ranks 76th among the top 100 pharmaceutical companies in the world with its 12 production facilities and 3 research centres.
Along with many other generic and brand-name medications, they provide dexamethasone solutions that are both injectable and intravenously administered. Their main office is in Mumbai, India.
A specialist pharmaceutical firm established in the US with a focus on both branded and generic medications, Xspire Pharmaceutical is privately owned.
Along with numerous other medications, their product portfolio includes both the generic and non-biosimilar brand name dexamethasone oral tablet (TaperDex). From its headquarters in Madison, MS, they provide service throughout the broader Mississippi region.
The main manufacturer of dexamethasone in Brazil is Aché Laboratórios, which also owns 357 brands and 142 therapeutic classes of prescription, over-the-counter, generic, and specialized care medication.
Aché has operations in 29 nations in Latin America, Africa, Asia, and Europe, and offers a wide range of pharmaceutical options. They have their primary facility in Guarulhos, Brazil.
WraSer Pharmaceuticals is a privately held speciality pharmaceutical marketing and distribution company with a focus on respiratory, otic infections, and pain management for the USA's southwest, southeast, midwest, and mid-Atlantic regions.
Along with a number of other medications, WraSer distributes steroid packs under the TaperDex and Zodex brands in an effort to establish itself as a dependable and affordable pharmaceutical supplier. Their main office is in Ridgeland, Mississippi.
The leading dexamethasone producers in the US and throughout the world were included in this article. We really hope that this information has you in your supplier search.
Additional resources and citations
- 2Sanofi Pharmaceuticals
- 3Endo International