dental instruments and their uses

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During my first visit to a dental clinic, I tend to notice that there are many different dental kits or dental instruments that are laid down beside the dental chair. A dentist and dental nurse use a variety of dental instruments/equipment for examining, cleaning, cutting and restoring teeth.

Dental Instruments are dental tools dental team use such as (Dentists, Dental nurse), to be able to remove teeth, Identify and select for all dental treatments.

Practical Identification of Dental instruments

Today, the dental team (such as a dental nurse) have major challenges in identifying dental instruments and select for dental use.
  Now, I have put together a practical guide in identifying (dental instruments and dental materials) and select for dental use to help our career and boost our morale. Not everyone is familiar with these dental tools names and information therefore here is a quick guide on the basic dental instruments pictures and names available in a dental office/clinic and their uses.

What is the instrumentation?

Instrumentation is the familiarization of the dental team such as (Dentists, Dental Nurse, Dental technologist), with the instrument to be able to classify, Identify and select for dental use.

Types of instruments?

  1.   Working end: Is a part that is used to carry out the purpose and the function of an instrument.
  2.   The shank: It is the part of an instrument that connects the working end and the handle.it may be a curve or straight.
  3.  And handle: The handle is the part that we hold. For example  Double-ended instrument I.e two working end for example spoon excavator and carver. The single-ended instrument, for example, Coupland elevator.  Corn socket instrument I.e they are separated from the shank instrument and working end and permit instrument exchange or replacement for example mouth mirror, handpieces and bur.
Practical Identification of Dental instruments

Physical identification of dental instruments include:

  1. Basic instruments
  2. Basic Materials used in dentistry
  3. Local anaesthesia
  4. Instruments and materials used in rubber dam placement
  5. Instruments and materials used in moisture control
  6. Handpieces, Burs the rotary attachment
  7. Matrix band and matrix retainers
  8. Elevators
  9. Extraction forceps
  10. Impression trays
  11. Orthodontics instruments.

 

Dental instruments can be either hand-held or rotary (for example-driven in a handpiece) and some can be of fiber optic light sources and ultrasonic equipment.

Dental hand instruments

The types of hand instruments can be categorized based on their function:

  • Examining the mouth and teeth
  • Scaling or professional cleaning of teeth
  • Cutting teeth and removing cavities
  • Placing and condensing filling materials
  • Carving and finishing dental fillings
  • Miscellaneous types.

General features of hand instrument design

Most of the hand-held instruments are made of stainless steel or sometimes carbon steel. Chisels and scalers often have tungsten carbide tips. The basic design of a hand instrument has a blade, a shank, and a handle.

Basic instruments

 Examination set is the basic instrument use first to examine a patient. This include:
 1. Dental probe: it is used to detect the depth of caries.
 2. Mouth mirror: it is used to view the patient mouth or for visualization of the patient mouth.
 3. College tweezers: For picking cotton wool into the patient mouth or for picking up some instrument.

Basic Materials needed in Dentistry

 1. Gloves: For protection
 2. Face mask: For protecting the face.

 3. Cotton wool: For cleaning up the saliva, blood and to stop bleeding.

Local Anesthesia

Topical Local Anesthesia For example. Ethyl chloride
Injectible Local Anesthesia For example. Xylocaine

Uses of Topical Anaesthetics

  1. Prevention of pain from needles during injections.
  2. Relief of painful sockets, ulcers, and wounds
  3. Prevention of gingival discomfort while taking copper ring impression.


Every effort has been made to ensure the dental team is provided with a theoretical background upon which the dental team can base their practical work. However, no website can take the place of practical experience, and no attempt has been made to give detailed advice on those aspects of work which can best be learned by practical demonstration.

Below are 112 Best Dental instruments and their uses:

 

Instruments use for examine the mouth and teeth



  1. Dental mirror: It’s used for visualization of the oral cavity or for viewing the patient mouth.
  2. Dental probe: It’s used to detect the depth of caries or the depth of caries.
  3. College tweezer: It’s used for picking cotton wool or gauze into the patient mouth.
  4. Dental tray: It’s used for picking dental materials or instruments.
  5. Coupland Elevator: It’s used for the expansion of the socket or dilating the socket.
  6. Scalpel holder: For holding a scalpel blade during a surgical procedure.
  7. Periosteal elevator: For raising flap from the floor of the mucosa membrane.
  8. Bone file: It’s used for file-in bone.
  9. Push scaler: It’s used for removing debris or calculus from the patient mouth/teeth.
  10. Spoon excavator: It’s used for removing debris or plaque from the patient mouth/teeth.
  11. Fine excavators: Used to remove soft food deposit.
  12. Mixing spatula: It’s used for mixing dental materials(E.G .alginate).
  13. Amalgam carrier: It’s used for taking/putting amalgam into the prepared cavity.
  14. Amalgam plugger: it is used to condense filling materials and apply pressure. Also known as amalgam condenser.
  15. Plaster knife: It’s used for plasterwork.
  16. Wax knife: It’s used for waxwork.
  17. Model: It’s used for demonstration, positive liveness of the patient’s mouth.
  18. Dental syringe: It’s used for introducing local anesthesia into the patient mouth.
  19. Fishtail elevator: It’s used for expansion of the socket.
  20. Cryer Elevator: It’s used for the expansion of the socket.
  21. Winter elevator: It’s used for expansion of the socket.
  22. Hospital pattern elevator: It’s used for expansion of the socket.
  23. War wick’s James elevator: It’s used for expansion of the socket.
  24. Elevators: Instruments commonly used for dental extraction. (Warwick James elevators, Cryer elevators, Winter elevators, Periosteal elevators, Molts elevators, Root-tip pick elevator, Heidbrink root tip elevators, Crane root tip elevators, Potts elevators, Cogswell-A & B elevators, Flat elevators, Miller’s apex luxators, Crossbar apex luxators). They are all used for the purpose of elevating the tooth out of the socket.
  25. Suturing materials: It’s used for suturing the injury path.
  26. Suturing tips: It’s used for extracting excess blood or saliva from the mouth.
  27. Dental needle: It’s used to introduce local anesthesia into the patient mouth(it has to types long and short).
  28. Disposable needle and syringe: It’s used for flushing the prepared cavity/Also for the irrigation process.
  29. Lower impression tray: It’s used for taking a lower impression of the teeth/ mouth.
  30. Upper impression tray: It’s used for taking an upper impression of the teeth/month.
  31. Periodontal probe: It’s used for measuring the depth of periodontal socket or depth of caries.
  32. Wooden spatula: It’s can also be used for cheek retractor / it also serves as an examination set or it’s used for mixing dental materials.
  33. Upper right molar forceps: It’s used for the extraction of the upper right molar tooth.
  34. Upper left molar forceps: It’s used for the extraction of the upper left molar tooth.
  35. Universal molar forceps(upper): It’s used for the extraction of both upper left and upper right molar tooth.
  36. Universal molar forceps(lower): It’s used for the extraction of both lower right and lower left molar teeth.
  37. Straight forceps or upper anterior forceps: It’s used for extraction of the upper anterior tooth.
  38. Lower anterior forceps: It’s used for extraction of the lower anterior tooth.
  39. Lower molar forceps: It’s used for the extraction of the lower molar tooth.
  40. Lower premolar forceps: It’s used for the extraction of a lower premolar tooth.
  41. Upper premolar forceps: It’s used for the extraction of an upper premolar tooth.
  42. Sickle scaler: It’s used for removing calculus from the tips of the cervical region.
  43. Ball burnisher: It’s used for smoothing the canal or during filling of the tooth.
  44. File: It’s used for enlarging the canal.
  45. Egg burnisher: It’s used for smoothing during filling.
  46. Reamers: It’s used for enlarging the canal.
  47. barbed broach: It’s used for removing the dead pulp (necrotic pulp)
  48. Dental chair: It’s used for sitting the patient during any dental procedure/surgery.
  49. Shade guide: It’s used in choosing shade I.e color of the teeth.
  50. Amalgam edge: It’s used for preventing overhanging amalgam.
  51. Scalpel: It’s used for cutting during surgical procedures.
  52. Stock teeth: It’s used for replacing mixing teeth.
  53. Cheatle forceps: It’s used for picking instruments.
  54. Condenser: It’s used for condensing restorative materials into the cavity.
  55. Bayonet: It’s used for extracting the upper retained root.
  56. Root forceps: It’s used for extracting retained root(lower teeth).
  57. Mallet: It’s used for extracting the retained root.
  58. Chisel: It’s used for extracting the retained root.
  59. Mortal and pestle: It’s used for mixing amalgam.
  60. Amalgamator(electronics one): It’s used for mixing amalgam.
  61. Saliva ejector: It’s used for removing excessive saliva from the floor of the mouth.
  62. Mouth prop: It’s used for opening mouth during surgical operations.
  63. Probe briault: It’s used to detect interproximal decay.
  64. Probe moon: It’s used to detect loose bones and root in the socket.
  65. periodontal curette: are used for the purpose of scaling and root planing.
  66. Probe measures: It’s used to detect the depth of pocket around the periodontal.
  67. Mouth gag: It’s used to open mouth during dental procedures.
  68. Tissue forceps: It’s used for holding tissue by the dental nurse during a surgical procedure.
  69. Bristle brush: It’s used for brushing during scaling and polishing.
  70. Mixing slab: It’s used for mixing dental materials.
  71. Film hanger: It’s used for hanging x-ray film.
  72. Mixing bowl: It’s used for mixing dental materials(e.g Alginate, dental stone).
  73. Dental flask: It’s used for the flasking denture.
  74. Lead coat: It’s used for protection during the x-ray procedure.
  75. Lecrol carver: It’s used for carving or removing a pimple from the surface of the model.
  76. Carver: It’s used for removing excess dental materials from the patient mouth.
  77. Wirecutter: It’s used for cutting dental ash wire.
  78. Dental scissors: It’s used for cutting stainless steel wire during a dental procedure.
  79. Matrix band: It serves as a mixing wall and it allows amalgam to be packed into the cavity.
  80. Matrix retainer: It helps in retaining the matrix band.
  81. Janquet: It’s used for removing sub-gingival calculus.
  82. Handpiece and bur: It’s used to gain access into the cavity.
  83. Measurement paper point: It’s used for drying the canal.
  84. Short dental needle: It’s used for infiltrating.
  85. Long dental needle: It’s used for blocking.
  86. Stainless steel wire: It’s used for inter-maxillary fixation.
  87. Gutta-percha: It’s used for obturating( when replacing the pulp).
  88. X-ray view: It’s used to view x-ray during a dental procedure.
  89. Ultrasonic scaler: It’s used for scaling and polishing.
  90. Glass slab: It’s used for mixing lining materials.
  91. Electronics ultrasonic machine: It’s used for scaling and polishing.
  92. Autoclave: It’s used to sterilize dental instruments after use.
  93. Surgical blade: For cutting during a surgical procedure.
  94. Phomopressor: It’s used in lining the canal during pulpotomy.
  95. Elastic module: It’s used to hold down the ash wire into the bracket.
  96. Artery forceps: It’s used to sit an elastic module.
  97. Bite registration wax: To check the accuracy of the teeth(the bite and the occlusion).
  98. Ruler gauge: It’s used for measuring.
  99. Adam’s plier: It’s used to band wire together inside the patient mouth.
  100. Elastic separator: It’s used to separate a contact point(it comes in various colors).
  101. Paper point: this is for drying the canal/for obturating the pulp to replace.
  102. Ligation turner: to thick in the wire.
  103. Ash contouring wire: To give you the shape of the ash bar.
  104. Bird beak wire: To form coil and band a wire.
  105. osteotomy: it is used in the dental implants to cut the bone. Similar to chisel.
  106. Lentulo spiral is a dental instrument used to properly insert root canal sealer and cement during a root canal, and endodontic therapy
  107. Half Hollenbach: Used to test for overhangs or flash.
  108. Dental hatchers: Used to dilate the tooth cavity and gain more entrance and removed the thin carious enamel.
  109. Willis gauge: Willis bite gauge is used to measure the positions of the mandible in the rest and bite positions
  110. Band pusher:  It is used to push orthodontic bands to properly seat them and precisely adapt them around the entire contour of teeth.
  111. Gutta Percha removal files: As the name implies is used to remove gutta-percha from smaller and more curved canals.
  112. K-files: Endodontic K-files are major endodontic tools for the cleaning and shaping of the root canal systems.

Base on analysis and research, some of this instruments above are their manufacturers name and they are available online. No any modifications whatsoever . I just stated there uses.

Instruments used for placing and condensing filling materials

Instruments used for placing and condensing filling materials

  • Plastic instruments are used to convey and shape filling materials and are usually flat blades that do not use heavy pressure. Some instruments have rounded ends for shaping and burnishing the surfaces of fillings. Plastic instruments are usually made of stainless steel for most materials though there are also thin Teflon-coated or titanium nitride instruments which are non-stick for composite fillings.
  • Condensers or pluggers instruments are used for compressing and forming filling materials. You must apply heavy pressure in order to use these instruments properly. So, therefore, these instruments are usually used for metal or amalgam fillings.

Instruments used for carving and finishing fillings

Carving and finishing instruments have sharp or semi-sharp blades of various shapes. They are used to carve materials by cutting and scraping.

 

Instruments and materials used in rubber dam placement

  1. Rubber dam: Prevents entry of moisture to a cavity, especially prior to insertion of silicate fillings, and during root canal therapy.
  2. Rubber dam clamps: Hold dam on teeth.
  3. Rubber dam forceps: Aid placement of clamps on teeth.
  4. Rubber dam frame: Holds dam in position around the mouth.

Materials: lubricant, Cotton wool.

 

Instruments and materials used in moisture control

Saliva injector: This method remove saliva from the floor of the mouth. It could be used in conjunction with a rubber dam, cotton wool, gauze, for just a period of isolation such as teeth.
Uses of saliva injector
 It removes saliva and water from the floor of the mouth; otherwise, the patient would have to be continually swallowing or choking.

Handpieces, Burs the rotary attachments

Instrument for handpieces
  1. Mandrels
  2. Unmounted Green Abrasive Stones
  3. Unmounted Green Abrasive Disks
  4. Mounted Green Abrasive Stones, Disks, And Points
  5. Bristle Brushes; cup, wheel, Tooth polishing.

Burs

Removal of decay and surrounding tooth structure.
Burs, finishing: To smooth the junction between enamel and filling, ensuring that no rough edges remain to hold food particles against the tooth.

Matrix band and matrix retainers

Matrix bands: Allow amalgam to be packed into cavities that are open on one side. It would otherwise fall out.

Elevators

Elevators: Is the removal of roots and teeth by rotating the point against root.
Elevators, periosteal: Reflection of flaps during apicectomy and subperiosteal curettage.
  1. Fishtail elevator
  2. Cryer elevator
  3. Winter elevator
  4. Coupland elevator
  5. Warwick James elevator
  6. Periosteal elevator
  7. Hospital elevator

Extraction forceps

Forceps: Extraction of teeth
Forceps, pocket marking: Indicating the amount of tissue to be removed during gingivectomy.
  1. Lower molar forceps: This has two beaks, facing each other and faced downward. Uses: This is used to extract right or left lower molar teeth.
  2. The extraction of upper molar forceps: There are two types of upper molar forceps; Right upper, left upper.
  3. Upper right molar forceps: The beak part faces my right hand and the mouth of the instrument faces upward. Uses: it is used for extraction of right upper molar teeth.
  4. Upper left molar forceps: The beak part faces my left hand and the mouth also faces upwardly. Uses: used for extraction of left upper molar teeth.
  5. Lower anterior forceps: This has a somehow flat head making both mouths facing downward. Uses: For the extraction of lower anterior teeth.
  6. Lower premolar forceps: This has a puff ( semi-circled ) head, with the mouth facing down. Uses: used for extraction of lower premolar teeth.
  7. Rongeur’s
  8. Upper bayonets (awkwardly placed wisdom teeth)
  9. Lower incisors, premolars, roots.
  10. Upper read’s (canines, premolars, roots)

Impression trays

This is made of silver and plastic. It has both upper and lower.
Impression tray: is used when there is a need for denture I.e when a patient loses one or more teeth.
impression-trays
Types of an impression tray
  • Upper impression tray
  • Lower impression tray
  • Edentulous patient
Orthodontics instruments.
  1. Artery forceps: To sit elastic modules.
  2. Elastic module: To hold down the ash wire into the bracket
  3. Elastic separator: To separate a contact point.
  4. Safe distal end wire cutter: Use for cutting wire.
  5. Band pusher: To sit the band.
  6. Adams plier: To band wire inside the mouth.
  7. Bracket holder: To grip bracket inside the mouth.
  8. Ruler Guage: For measuring
  9. Sep a ring: Separator or module separator
  10. Cheek retractor: To retract or expand.

Every effort as been made to ensure dental professionals are provided a theoretical background upon which the dental team can base their practical work on. However, no website can take the place of practical experience, and no attempt as been made to give detailed advice on those aspects of work which can best be learned by practical demonstration.

Basic Dental instruments Names and Pictures pdf

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References

 

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