What is Retardation
The term "retardation" is often used to indicate issues with human brain development that lead to intellectual disability or other types of physical or educational impairments.
Retardation also refers to the prevention of something's complete growth or development. The development of your tomato plants, for instance, might be stunted by a lack of sunshine.
Retardation may also refer to a simple slowing down of pace or various forms of slowness or delays. The Latin term retardare's origin literally translates to "to make slow, delay, hold back, or impede.
According to severity, the DSM-IV divides mental retardation into four stages: mild (IQ score between 50 and 55 and approximately 70), moderate (IQ score between 30 and 35 and 50-55), severe (IQ score between 20 and 25 and 35-40), and profound.
What is mental retardation?
Nowadays, mental retardation is referred to as an "intellectual disability," also known as a c. Intellectual disability is described as "a disability characterised by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behaviour, which covers many everyday social and practical skills," by the American Association of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.
"Intellectual disability" is defined as a diagnosis made before the age of 18 and characterised by below-average intelligence (IQ) or mental ability as well as a lack of fundamental skills required for daily living, daily interaction, and activities (communication and social skills).
Due to these restrictions, a youngster will learn and grow more slowly than an average child. Similar to other health issues, an intellectual impairment might be minor or severe (bigger).
An individual will have greater difficulty acquiring new skills and developing their independence the more severe their handicap. Depending on their level of intelligence quotient, individuals with various degrees of intellectual impairment are classified (IQ).
1Intellectual disability used to be referred to as mental retardation in the past, but this term is no longer used because it offends people's feelings.
An illness is not intellectual incapacity. An intellectual handicap cannot be acquired from anybody. Additionally, it is not a mental condition, such as depression. Intellectual impairments are incurable.
However, the majority of kids with intellectual disabilities can pick up a variety of skills. They just need more time and effort than other kids.
Children with intellectual disabilities can have issues ranging from mild to extremely severe.
Children with intellectual disabilities may find it difficult to express their needs and wants to others and to take care of themselves.
Intellectual handicaps might lead a kid to learn and grow more slowly than other children of the same age.
A child with an intellectual disability might need more time to learn to speak, walk, dress or eat by themselves. They might also struggle in school. It is typical to have comorbidities, such as behavioural disorders.
It's crucial to get your child help as soon as you can if you want to see him or her reach his or her full potential. An intellectual disability does not preclude someone from learning. Just ask anyone who is close to or knows someone who has an intellectual disability.
A diverse group of people with mental retardation, have a wide range of very complex needs. The type and severity of the underlying disorder, the accompanying disabilities, environmental factors, psychological factors, cognitive abilities, and co-occurring psychopathological conditions all affect how an individual with mental retardation develops.
This research demonstrates that social development declines in direct proportion to the severity of the mental disability.
The age factor had no effect on how well-advanced socially mentally retarded children were. The capacity to act in line with societal expectations is acquired via social development. Three processes are involved in socialisation:
i) acquiring socially acceptable behaviour,
ii) assuming socially acceptable positions; and
iii) The formation of social attitudes.
The final level of social development of persons with mental retardation affects the amount of assistance required for their literacy arrangements and integration into society, with a growing focus on mainstreaming the acquisition of skills for personal, household, and communal functioning.
It significantly improves life quality as well. Investigating elements that could promote or impede social development, therefore, has special significance.
What can I do if I think my child may have an intellectual disability?
Speak to the nurse or doctor about your kid. You may take your child to a developmental paediatrician or another expert if you or your doctor suspect there may be an issue, and you can also get in touch with your neighbourhood early intervention programme (for kids under three) or public school (for children 3 and older).
You may get in touch with the Parent Center in your state to find out who to talk to within your location.
Is mental retardation (intellectual disability) the same as developmental disabilities?
The phrase "developmental disabilities" is a catch-all for a variety of impairments that become evident in childhood, including intellectual disability.
Developmental disabilities are severe, long-term impairments that might be physical, cognitive, or both. The disabilities start before age 22 and are probably permanent.
Some developmental disabilities, like cerebral palsy or epilepsy, are primarily physical conditions. Some people may suffer from a condition like Down syndrome or foetal alcohol syndrome, which causes both a physical and an intellectual disability.
The "cognitive" portion of this definition, which refers to a disability that is generally related to thought processes, includes intellectual disability.
Due to the frequent co-occurrence of intellectual and other developmental disabilities, professionals who specialise in this field frequently work with clients who have both conditions.
Is mental retardation (intellectual disability) determined by just an IQ test?
A complicated topic is the assessment and categorization of intellectual impairment. Severe impairments in intellectual functioning, significant restrictions in adaptive behaviour, and starting before the age of 18 are the three main indicators of intellectual disability.
The ability to study, think, solve problems, and so on is known as intellectual functioning, and it is mostly assessed through IQ tests. A test result of less than or equal to 70 or more than 75 reveals intellectual functioning limitations.
Levels of mental retardation
having an IQ ranging from 50-55 to around 70-75. People with this level of education would need little to no help with everyday tasks. They attend school and even do well in both academics and sports. When kids reach adulthood, they may go to work and provide for themselves.
IQ ranges from 30 to 40 to 50 to 55. People with this level of development will need ongoing, substantial help as needed.
IQ ranges from 20–25 to 35–40. Numerous supports are offered, often in the form of daily help in a variety of venues.
IQ below 2–25. As the person lacks the mental and physical ability to take care of himself, including life-sustaining measures, constant support is required.
Types of mental retardation
The percentage of Americans who have some form of intellectual disability is around 3%. Such people can live better lives if they receive the right support, attention, and guidance from family and medical professionals.
Most individuals with intellectual disabilities are categorised as having mild disabilities. People with mild mental retardation develop concepts and social and daily living skills more slowly in all areas.
These people have the capacity to acquire useful life skills that enable them to function in daily life with the least amount of assistance.
People with moderate mental retardation are capable of taking care of themselves, visiting places they are familiar with in their neighbourhood, and picking up simple safety and health-related skills. Their moderate self-care needs some assistance.
Mental retardation treatment
There are three primary types of treatments for mental retardation:
1. therapies that deal with or lessen any underlying causes of mental retardation, such as limiting phenylalanine intake in phenylketonuria patients' diets;
2. therapies for patients with comorbid physical and mental illnesses with the goal of enhancing their functioning and life skills, such as pharmacological interventions for behavioural issues in fragile X syndrome children; and
3. Special education, habilitation, early behavioural and cognitive interventions, and psychosocial supports.
Psychosocial interventions are typically the main focus of standards for the evaluation and treatment of mental retardation. The difficulties change depending on the person's age, the severity of their impairment, and the presence of any other coexisting conditions.
The full spectrum of psychiatric disorders can manifest in people with mental retardation, so medications can occasionally help manage these disorders.
The psychiatric diagnostic process is challenging for patients with mental retardation due to their verbal and cognitive limitations.
The majority of the time, treatment for these disorders is more difficult due to mental retardation, though they frequently respond to standard psychiatric interventions, such as medication and psychosocial support.
The term "mental retardation" was once used to describe people who appeared odd and were significantly slower to learn and perform daily tasks. Thankfully, mental retardation is now always referred to as an "intellectual impairment."
Additional resources and citations
- 1Intellectual disability