Depression is a risk factor for dementia and heart disease but is not hard to endure. Many reasons can cause depressive symptoms in an adult. We ask Dr Serge A. Kozak (FRACGP MBBS BMedSc DCH) from DJM, says that it's a good idea to see your doctor or consult a mental health specialist if you are going through mood or cognitive changes that last more than a few weeks.
Below we'll explain the four most common type of depression.
Major depression: This type is a state where a dark mood is consuming, and ones lose interest in all activities including those that are pleasurable. Loss of energy, change in appetite or weight, feeling worthless, and trouble in sleeping are some of the symptoms of this type of depression. Thoughts of death or suicide may happen. This kind of depression is usually treated with medication and psychotherapy. Electroconvulsive therapy may be useful for individuals with severe depression that isn't relieved with antidepressant and psychotherapy medication.
Persistent depressive disorder: once refer to as "dysthymia" This type of depression is known as a low mood that occurs for at least two years but may not attain the intensity of major depression. Many people with this type of depression feel flat or joyless much of the time but can function day to day. Low self-esteem, low energy, hopeless, appetite and sleep changes are some of this depression types symptoms.
Bipolar disorder: This type of depression is formerly called manic-depressive disease has episodes of depression. They also experience a period of high energy or activity. Manic symptoms seem to look like the opposite of depression symptoms; overspending and risk-taking, activity at higher speed, decrease in need of sleep, unrealistically high self-esteem and the ramped-up pursuit of pleasure such as sex sprees and grandiose ideas. Being manic can feel great but is usually followed by a period of depression, which can lead to self-destructive. Medication for bipolar disorder can be very effective in stabilising a person's mood but are different from those given for other depression types.
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD): As days get shorter in the fall and winter, this type of depression emerges. Alteration in the body's natural daily rhythms may lead to a mood change or chemical messengers like melatonin and serotonin function or the eyes sensitivity to light. Light therapy is the leading treatment, which includes daily sessions sitting close to an intense light source. The treatment for depression, such as medication and psychotherapy may be useful.
Depression types unique to women
General depression affects women, but they are also at high risk of two types of depression, which are caused by perinatal depression, reproductive hormones, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
Perinatal depressions: this types of depression also known as postpartum depression include minor or major depressive episodes that happen during pregnancy or 12 months after delivery. One in seven women who gave birth is affected by premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and can have devastating effects on the woman, their infants, and their families. Treatment includes medication and counselling.
PMDD: this kind of depression is a severe form of PMS or premenstrual syndrome. PMDD symptoms start shortly after ovulation and end once menstruation begins. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as sertraline (Zoloft) and fluoxetine (Sarafem) may reduce the symptoms.
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