15 ORAL SURGERY INSTRUMENTS AND THEIR USES

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As the dental profession evolves, there is an increasing demand for supplementary material that can keep up with advancing trends. ‘Hands-on’ practical experience is essential for anyone in the dental profession, and this needs to be supplemented with written information to reinforce our practical experiences.

A dental surgery contains instruments and equipment of various shapes, sizes and functions. The most oral surgery instruments commonly used during the procedure are:

1. Oral Surgery Instrument:  Straight Elevators

Oral surgery instruments-straight elevator

Uses: To loosen the tooth from periodontal ligaments before extraction. To separate and lift tooth from the socket.

Characteristics: Single-ended. Variety of sizes.

2. Oral Surgery Instrument: Periosteal Elevator

Oral surgery instruments-periosteal forceps

Uses: To provide indirect vision

To retract lips, cheeks, and a tongue To reflect light into the mouth

Characteristics: Accurate image from the flat surface mirrors, image magnified with concave mirrors.

3. Oral Surgery Instrument: Root-Tip Picks

 

Oral-surgery-instruments-Root-tips-pick

Uses: To lift and remove small root tips in difficult areas

Characteristics: Pointed at the working end. Straight or right-and-left pairs.

 

4. Oral Surgery Instrument: Root Elevators/ Cryers

Oral surgery instruments-root elevators

Uses: To loosen root. To separate and lift tooth from the socket. To use on posterior teeth

Characteristics: Single-ended. Can be right or left. Variety of sizes.

5. Oral Surgery Instrument: Root-Tip Elevators

Root-tip-elevators.jpg

Uses: To lift and remove fragments of root

Characteristics: Single-ended. Rounded or pointed.

Straight or right-and-left pairs

6. Oral Surgery Instrument: Bone File

Oral surgery instruments-Bone file

Uses: To remove or smooth edges of alveolar bone

Characteristics: Used in push-pull motion; straight- cut or cross-cut cutting end; a variety of sizes, angles, and shapes.

7.Oral Surgery Instrument: Maxillary Universal Forceps are also known as Cryer 150

 

Maxillary Universal Forceps are also known as Cryer 150

Uses: To extract maxillary central, laterals, cuspids, premolars, and roots

Characteristics: Has straight handles or one curved handle

8. Oral Surgery Instrument: Maxillary Right Forceps

Oral Surgery Instrument: Maxillary Right Forceps

Uses: To extract the trifurcated maxillary right first or second molars

Characteristics: Has right-split beak to engage the lingual root

 

9. Dental Surgery Instrument: Maxillary Left Forceps

Oral surgery instruments-maxillary left forceps

Uses: To extract trifurcated maxillary left first or second molars

Characteristics: Has left-split beak to engage the lingual root.

Related Tray Set-up

10.Dental Surgery Instrument: Mandibular Universal Forceps

Oral Surgery Instrument: Mandibular Universal Forceps

Uses: To extract mandibular central, laterals, cuspids, premolars, and roots

Characteristics: Has straight handles or one curved handle.

11. Dental  Surgery Instrument: Universal Mandibular Forceps

Oral surgery instruments-mandibular forceps

Uses: To extract mandibular first and second molars

Characteristics: Straight handles or one curved handle

12.Dental  Surgery Instrument: Rongeur

Oral surgery instruments-rongeur

Uses: To trim and remove excess alveolar bone after extraction

Characteristics: Variety of sizes and angles.

13. Dental  Surgery Instrument: Bone Chisel

Uses: To split or section a tooth for easier removal by tapping on the chisel with a mallet; to reshape or contour alveolar bone

Characteristics: Single-level chisel for contouring or removing alveolar bone; bilevel chisel for splitting teeth; a variety of sizes.

14. Oral Surgery Instrument: Surgical Curette

Oral surgery instruments-Surgical curette

Uses: To remove debris or granulation tissue from surgical site; to remove a cyst from extraction site or surgical site; to use for gross tissue debridement.

Characteristics: Various sizes and shapes; single or double-ended.

15. Oral Surgery Instrument: Surgical Evacuation Tip

Oral surgery instruments-Surgical curette

Uses: To evacuate fluid from the oral cavity and surgical sites

Characteristics: Stainless steel, autoclavable plastic, or disposable plastic; tips narrow to accommodate surgical site; attaches to tubing on dental unit.

Extraction Tray set-up

Extraction tray set-up

  1. Cotton Rolls
  2. Topical Anesthetic
  3. 2×2 Gauzes
  4. Needle (Short for Maxillary; Long for Mandibular)
  5. Anesthetic Carpules
  6. Syringe
  7. Mouth Mirror
  8. Explorer/ Perioprobe
  9. Small Elevator
  10. Large Elevator
  11. Periosteal
  12. Surgical Curette
  13. Forcep:
    • Teeth #1-3: 88R
    • Teeth #4-13: 150
    • Teeth #14-16: 88L
    • Teeth #17-19: Cowhorn 23
    • Teeth #20-29: 151
    • Teeth #30-32: Cowhorn 23

Suture removal tray set-up

Suture removal tray set-up

  1. Explorer/ Perioprobe Suture Scissors
  2. Mouth Mirror Cotton Rolls
  3. Cotton Forcep 6. 2×2 Gauzes
  4. Suture Scissors
  5. Mouth Mirror
  6. Cotton Rolls
  7. 2×2 Gauzes

Suture tray set-up

Suture tray set-up

  1. Suture and Needle
  2. Suture Scissors
  3. 2×2 Gauze Cotton Forcep
  4. Cotton Rolls Mouth Mirror
  5. Hemostat
  6. Suture Scissors
  7. Mouth Mirror.

This guide is for students working and studying in the dental profession. It may be used as a study aid or as a reference guide.

RELATED READING

  1. Dental Explorer: Periodontal Instrument, Dental Excavator,and their uses
  2. Top 10 Instruments Used for Dental Extraction
  3. 10 Basic Prophylaxis Tray Setup
  4. 8 Oral Hygiene Tips for Healthy, White Teeth
  5. 7 Reasons Why Dental Cleanings Are Essential for Better Health
  6. Dental care tips you can start using today

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