Specialist in Diagnosis and Treatment, of Diseases of the Blood

Diagnosis of The Cirulatory System,the Heart, and Blood The cardiologist is an internist  who has special knowledge In the diagnosis and med

Specialty in Diagnosis, Treatment, and Surgery of the Brain and Nervous System
Blood Tests: Red and White Blood Cells, Lab Test And Other factors
Urinalysis Tests: labouratory tests of urine

Diagnosis of The Cirulatory System,the Heart, and Blood 

The cardiologist is an internist  who has special knowledge In the diagnosis and medical treatment of heart disease. The hematologist is an internist who has special training  in the techniques of diagnosing and treating diseases of the blood (including lymph) and bone marrow.
  The thoracic surgeon is a surgeon who has satisfied the requirements of licensing boards for both general surgery and thoracic (chest cavity ) surgery. He has special training in the surgical treatment of defects and diseases of the heart and large blood vessels. The uascular surgeon
general surgeon specializing the surgical treatment of diseases of blood vessels.


  The electrocardiogram graphically regords the electrical activity of the heart associated with contraction of the cardiac muscle. It can provide valuable information regarding disorders of or damage to the heart muscle ( heart attack), disturbances  in rhythm, or enlargement of any of the
four chambers of the heart. A Vectorcardiogram is similar to the
electrocardiogram, but more specifically
attuned to the magnitude and direction of the electrical currents of the heart. Abnormalities not apparent on the electrocardiogram may often be revealed by a Vectorcardiogram.

  The phonocardiogram is a recording of paper of the heart sounds which enables the physician to evaluate murmurs and abnormal heart sounds with more accuracy than by listening with the stethoscope. The
timing of the murmur with relation to the specific events of heart muscle contraction may also be precisely evaluated. The echocardiogram provides a paper tracing of sound waves which are directed towards, and subsequently bounced back from, various internal heart structures.
  The technique is useful in diagnosing abnormalities of the heart valves, as well as abnormal collections of fluid in the sac (pericardium) enveloping the heart.

  The fluoroscope visualizes the heart in action by use of X rays. It is useful in the evaluation of heart and vessel pulsation as well as valve or vessel calcification. Plain chest Xrays may reveal enlargement of the 
heart, abnormal calcification of vessels or heart valves, and signs of a congestive heart valve. These are only three examples of the great number of abnormalities that can be 
revealed by a routine chest X ray. 
  The cardiac X-ray series are a number of X rays of the chest taken in several positions as the patient swallows a liquid, for example, barium sulfate, which makes the 
esophagus stand out on the X ray. This is 
usually called a barium swallow. 
Indentation of the esophagus by abnormally enlarged heart chambers may 
be revealed by this technique.”Barium meals are also important in the radiologic diagnosis of disorders of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine. 
  Cardiac catheterization is the insertion of a small tubular surgical instrument, via a vein in the arm or artery of the leg, through the blood vessels, directly into the right or left side of the heart. This procedure is
employed to confirm suspected intracardiac (within the heart) anomalies, determine intracardiac pressures, and take blood samples. ( e.g Blood Test )
Catheterization enables the physician to
confirm suspected defects in the walls dividing the heart chambers or to estimate the severity of a lesion and the need for corrective surgery.
Angiocardiography, if warranted, is performed at the same time as cardiac catheterization. Its principle involves the injection of a contrast material (e. g. a substance visible on a fluoroscopy screen or X-ray film) by means of the catheter, with consequent visualization of the heart and major blood vessels.
Angiography Is not limited to investigation
of the heart chambers but can reveal abnormalities of large vessels such as the aorta, coronary arteries, and renal arteries. 
CAT scanning, used in diagnosis of the nervous system and the brain Is becoming
an increasingly important diagnostic tool and may in many cases make angiocardiography unnecessary. Sometimes called a body scanner the CAT scanner takes a series of computer assisted X-ray pictures as it slowly rotates around the patient, thus providing cross sectional pictures of the target organ. It is a painless and safe procedure, and is capable of
providing pictures of areas of the body that would be very difficult to visualize by any other means.



  Routine laboratory tests performed in all hospital admissions are the peripheral

smear and complete blood, count. Approximately 6 milliliters (ml) of blood are aspirated (withdrawn by suction) from a vein, typically in the crease of the elbow. From this sample, a determination of the 
patient’s hemoglobin and percentage
of red corpuscles per milliliter of plasma may be calculated. Microscopic anaiysis of the number and character of the red cells, white cells, and platelets provides additional essential information.
See Also: Blood tests

  If an abnormality such as decreased hemoglobin or over population of white ceils is noted on complete blood count and peripheral smear, the physician might request that a sample of the patient’s bone
marrow be obtained for evaluation a procedure called bone marrow biopsy. Following local anesthesia of the operative site, typically the hip bone, a biopsy needle is inserted into the marrow of the bone and a small sample of marrow is withdrawn. If performed by an experienced physician, the patient feels only some pressure and very slight pain as the marrow sample is
  In suspected cases of neoplastc diseases, diseases involving abnormal growths that may be or may become malignant a lymph node biopsy (surgical excision and microscopic examination of lymph node
tissue) is performed. A lymphangiogram is used when tumors of the lymphatic system are suspected. A dye or contrast material visible on an X ray is injected into a lymphatic vessel, usually one on the top of the foot. X rays of the abdomen taken over
the next several days are studied for abnormalities in the size and structure of internal lymph nodes.
  There are numerous other hematological tests, including radioactive (radio isotope) tests, which are used in special situations when diagnosis by other means is inadequate.

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