Neoplasm: What is, Causes, Effects, Types and Treatment

                                    NeoplasmWhat is Neoplasm

                                    Neoplasm

What is Neoplasm?

  A tumour literally means swelling of tissue. A Neoplasm is strictly defined as an uncoordinated proliferation of tissues, the growth of which persists in an unlimited fashion, even after the removal of the stimulus that causes the change.
   The term neoplasm is a Greek word which means Noes-New, plasma-tissue

Types of neoplasm

A benign tumour

  1. Slow growing
  2. Encapsulated
  3. Margin well defined
  4. Do not spread to other organs than that direct extension
  5. Benign tumours which arise from both epithelial and connective tissue are usually referred to with a name and a phrase called ” omas”

Malignant Tumor

  1. Grow more rapidly
  2. Margins are I’ll define
  3. Infiltrate to surrounding tissue
  4. Malignant tumour of epithelial origin is called ” carcinoma” while that of connective tissue or mesodermal origin are called ” sarcoma”

Malignant Tumor may form metastasis
Metastasis – This means invasiveness to distant organs. This can be by:

  1. Direct spread
  2. Via lymphatic
  3. Via bloodstream
  4. Through body cavities

Causes of  neoplasm

These are sometimes referred to as carcinogenic agents

  1. Smoking
  2. Alcohol
  3. Syphilis
  4. Nutritional Deficiency
  5. Sunlight
  6. Trauma or dental irritation
  7. Virus e.g epsten bar (E.B) virus
  8. Premalignant lesion e.g. leucoplakia
  9. Vitamin deficiency
  10. Oral sepsis.

Effects of neoplasm on human

This depends on the site of a tumour

  1. Obstruction
  2. Pathological fracture
  3. Haemorrhage
  4. Infection
  5. Fever
  6. Cachexia (a) Anorexia (b) malabsorption
  7. Anaemia.

Treatment of Neoplasm

  1. Chemotherapy
  2. Surgery.
  3. Radiotherapy
  4. A combination. For example; both chemotherapy and surgery

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